Pratik İngilizce: Eğitim Öğrenme Konuşma Kitabı Seti CD DVD

Geçmiş Zaman (Present Perfect Tense)




104. I HAVE LOST MY MONEY SOMEWHERE HERE.

beard: sakal    break, breaktime: teneffüs    later: daha sonra    long: uzun süre
pan: tava    burn: yakmak    grow: uzatmak, bırakmak    rain: yağmur yağmak
shave: sakal traşı olmak    pick up: tutup kaldırmak
past participle: geçmiş zaman ortacı (fiilin üçüncü hali)

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE: GEÇMİŞ ZAMAN
I have played.      : Oynadım.              I have not played.      : Oynamadım.
You have played. : Oynadın.               You have not played. : Oynamadın.
He has played.     : Oynadı.                  He has not played.    : Oynamadı.
She has played.   : Oynadı.                  She has not played.   : Oynamadı.
It has played.       : Oynadı.                 It has not played.       : Oynamadı.
We have played.  : Oynadık.                We have not played.  : Oynamadık.
You have played. : Oynadınız.              You have not played. : Oynamadınız.
They have played.: Oynadılar.             They have not played.: Oynamadılar.

Have I played?     : Oynadım mı?         Haven’t I played?     : Oynamadım mı?
Have you played? : Oynadın mı?          Haven’t you played? : Oynamadın mı?
Has he played?     : Oynadı mı?            Hasn’t he played?     : Oynamadı mı?
Has she played?   : Oynadı mı?            Hasn’t she played?   : Oynamadı mı?
Has it played?       : Oynadı mı?           Hasn’t it played?        : Oynamadı mı?
Have we played?  : Oynadık mı?          Haven’t we played?   : Oynamadık mı?
Have you played? : Oynadınız mı?       Haven’t you played?  : Oynamadınız mı?
Have they played?: Oynadılar mı?       Haven’t they played? : Oynamadılar mı?

PRESENT                        PAST                          PAST PARTICIPLE
am, is, are                      was, were                  been
break                              broke                          broken
bring                               brought                      brought
build                                built                           built
buy                                  bought                       bought
come                               came                          come
cost                                 cost                            cost
cut                                   cut                              cut
do                                    did                              done
draw                                drew                          drawn
drink                                drank                         drunk
drive                                drove                         driven
eat                                   ate                              eaten
feed                                 fed                              fed
feel                                  felt                              felt
find                                  found                         found
fly                                    flew                            flown
forget                              forgot                         forgotten
get                                  got                              got
give                                gave                            given
go                                   went                            gone
grow                               grew                           grown
have                               had                              had
hit                                   hit                               hit
hold                                held                            held
hurt                                hurt                             hurt
know                              knew                           known
learn                              learned, learnt            learned, learnt
leave                             left                                left
lend                               lent                               lent
light                               lit                                 lit
lose                               lost                               lost
make                             made                           made
mean                            meant                          meant
put                                put                               put
read                              read                             read
ride                               rode                             ridden
run                                ran                               run
say                                said                              said 
see                                saw                              seen
sell                                sold                              sold
shine                             shone                           shone
show                             showed                        shown
shut                               shut                             shut
sing                               sang                             sung
sit                                  sat                                sat
sleep                             slept                             slept
speak                            spoke                           spoken
stand                             stood                           stood
sweep                           swept                           swept
swim                             swam                           swum
think                             thought                        thought
understand                  understood                  understood
wear                             wore                             worn
write                             wrote                           written

* Past Simple Tense geçmiş zamandır. Present Perfect Tense’in şimdi ile bağlantısı
  vardır:

I have lost my keys.
Anahtarlarımı kaybettim. (Onlar şu anda kayıp.)
I lost my keys but now I have found them.
Anahtarlarımı kaybettim ama şimdi buldum. (Onlar şu anda kayıp değil.)
We went out at break and now we have come back.
Teneffüste dışarı çıktık ve şimdi geri geldik.
My granddad grew a beard but he has shaved it off now.
Dedem sakal bırakmıştı ama şimdi kesti.
I have lost my key. (I haven’t got it now.)
I have forgotten his name. (I can’t remember it now.)
He has gone out. (He is out now.)

* Past Simple Tense eylem ve zaman bittiğinde kullanılır:

I played football yesterday.: Dün futbol oynadım.

* Present Prefect Tense eylem bittiğinde, ama zaman bitmediğinde kullanılır:
I have played football today.: Bugün futbol oynadım.
  Veya zaman belirgin olmadığında kullanılır:
Have you ever played football?: Sen hiç futbol oynadın mı?
I have never played football. : Ben hiç futbol oynamadım.

* Zamanın o bölümünün bittiğini düşünerek when ve what time sorularından sonra
  Past Simple Tense kullanırız:

When did you come here? : Buraya ne zaman geldin?
What time did you get up this morning?: Bu sabah saat kaçta kalktın?

* Bilgi vermek için Present Perfect Tense kullanırız, ama devam etmek istersek
   Past Simple Tense kullanırız:

A: - I’ve burnt myself. : Kendimi yaktım.
B: - How did you do that?: Nasıl yaptın?
A: - I picked up a hot pan.: Sıcak bir tavayı tuttum.

1. - Did you brush your teeth yesterday morning?
    - Yes, I brushed my teeth yesterday morning.
     
Evet, dün sabah dişlerimi fırçaladım.

2. - Have you brushed your teeth this morning?
    - Yes, I have brushed my teeth this morning.

3. - Did you have your dinner yesterday?
    - Yes, I had my dinner yesterday.

4. - Have you had your dinner today?
    - No, I haven’t had my dinner today.

5. - Did you drink water yesterday?
    - Yes, I drank water yesterday.

6. - Have you drunk anything today?
    - Yes, I have drunk something today.

7. - Did you read any books last week?
    - Yes, I read some books last week.

8. - Have you swum this week?
    - No, I haven’t swum this week.

9. - Did you buy new shoes last year?
    - Yes, I bought new shoes last year.

10. - Have you bought a new coat this year?
      - No, I haven’t bought a new coat this year.

11. - Did it rain last month?
      - Yes, it rained last month.

12. - Has it snowed this month?
      - No, it hasn’t snowed this month.

13. - Have you seen Ali’s new car?
      - No, I haven’t seen Ali’s new car.

14. - Have you travelled by train?
      - Yes, I’ve traveled by train.

15. - How many cities have you visited?
      - I’ve visited a lot of cities.

 

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